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Immunohistochemistry lecture – This lecture explains about the immunohistochemistry principle and procedure and why we use it to identify a specific type of antigen from tissue samples. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu’s Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-material… Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching

Shomu’s Biology
841K subscribers
This DNA mutation lecture explains about types of point mutations like nonsense mutation, missense mutation, silent mutation etc.
A mutation is a everlasting exchange somewhere in a DNA sequence. DNA is the unit of heredity of all organisms, so this means that mutations can most often be handed on to offspring. Mutations do not have got to be bad. Some are worthy, whilst others are impartial or don’t have any effect. There are a lot of one of a kind categories of mutations, however in this lesson we can center of attention on factor mutations, or these attributable to a metamorphosis in a single or a fewnucleotides at a single area in a DNA sequence.
A mutation that includes a single nucleotide and may consist of lack of a nucleotide, substitution of a nucleotide for another, or the insertion of an extra nucleotide.

For instance, sickle-mobile disorder is triggered with the aid of a single factor mutation (a missense mutation) within the beta-hemoglobin gene at role 6 that converts a GAG codon into GTG, which encodes the amino acid valine as a substitute than glutamic acid.

For more information, log on to-
http://www.shomusbiology.com/
Get Shomu’s Biology DVD set here-
http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/
Download the study materials here-
http://shomusbiology.com/bio-material…
Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology-
Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store
Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help
Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching

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Thank you for watching

This video discusses about properties of antigens and antibodies and their interaction pattern and also the importance of antigen antibody complex in detecting diseases by immunoassay.
An immune complex is formed from the integral binding of an antibody to a soluble antigen. The bound antigen and antibody act as a specific epitope, and is referred to as a singular immune complex. After an antigen-antibody reaction, the immune complexes can be subject to any of a number of responses, including complement deposition, opsonization, phagocytosis, or processing by proteases. Red blood cells carrying CR1-receptors on their surface may bind C3b-decorated immune complexes and transport them to phagocytes, mostly in liver and spleen, and return to the general circulation.

Immune complexes may themselves cause disease when they are deposited in organs, e.g. in certain forms of vasculitis. This is the third form of hypersensitivity in the Gell-Coombs classification, called Type III hypersensitivity.

Immune complex deposition is a prominent feature of several autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, cryoglobulinemia, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma and Sjögren’s syndrome.

Shomu’s Biology
841K subscribers
Antigen presenting cells or APCs – This lecture explains about the properties of Professional antigen presenting cells such as macrophage, dendritic cells and B cells. It also explains the importance of antigen presenting cells or APC to engulf a pathogen through phagocytosis and then presenting it to the whole immune system so that cell mediated and humoral immune response can build up.
Mature, naive B- and T cells, as well as precursors of APC (antigen presenting cells, including monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells) from the bone marrow emigrate from the central lymphatic organs. Lymphocytes travel mainly via the bloodstream. APC leave the bloodstream to widely roam tissues. Eventually, all types of cells meet again at the peripheral lymphatic organs: lymph nodes, GALT/Peyer plaques and tonsils, BALT and spleen.

Lymph nodes seem static in the microscope, but should better be compared to the transit area of a big international airport, with oodles of cells arriving and leaving all the time. Lymph nodes have several inlets and an outlet. Afferent lymphatic vessels reaching the most peripheral lymph nodes transport the interstitial fluid filtrated from blood capillaries. With the lymph flow, dendritic cells loaded with ingested material drift to the lymph nodes, e. g., Langerhans cells from the skin. In case of an infection, lymph flow increases dramatically, carrying with it pathogens and their antigenic molecules, outside and inside of activated macrophages and dendritic cells. Thus, a lymph node is a local command center with continuous real-time information on the antigenic situation in the periphery. From the blood, lymphocytes constantly enter the lymph node via specialized high endothelial venules. B cells migrate to areas near the cortex, and, if activated, form follicles with germinal centers. There, specialized “follicular dendritic cells” immobilize immune complexes with their Fc- and complement receptors, so that the antigens are “visible” to the proliferating B cells. T cells wander to adjacent paracortical areas. Some activated B cells that already have differentiated to plasma cells, and more macrophages, sit in the lymph node’s medulla. Each lymph node has an efferent vessel connecting to the next lymph node and, eventually, via the thoracic duct to the blood.

(Caution: “dendritic cells” and “follicular dendritic cells” are completely different cell types that obtained similar names (dendritic = tree-like) because of their morphological appearance. Dendritic cells are specialized APC ingesting antigen in the periphery and presenting processed antigen on MHC II to T cells. Follicular dendritic cells sit in germinal centers and use complement receptors and Fc receptors to fix antigen-containing immune complexes on their outer surface for B cells to see.)

For more information, log on to-
http://www.shomusbiology.com/
Get Shomu’s Biology DVD set here-
http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/
Download the study materials here-
http://shomusbiology.com/bio-material…
Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology-
Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store
Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help
Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching

We are social. Find us on different sites here-
Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com
Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/
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Thank you for watching the lecture on Antigen presenting cells.

B Cells are one of 3 types of Antigen Presenting Cells (APC) –
B Cell, Dendritic, Cells & Macrophages

Antigen Presenting Cells consume foreign invaders.
APC consumes foriegn antigens and their pathogens, they digest and showcase a sample of theses antigens at their surface through a receptor called MHC 2.
MHC 2 transports this digested sample from within the APC cell, to the exterior surface, like a warning flag with a sample fragment (Antigen) attached that attracts help. Help can then engage with the antigen and recruit more help from the immune systems Helper T Cells and B Cells.

APC Cells are of 3 types

  1. Dendritic Cells (DC)
  2. B Cells
  3. Macrophages

This Video highlights Macrophages as the APC example.

  • All Neucleated Cells have MHC 1 on their surface,
  • All APC Cells have MHC 2 as well. The 3 types of APC cells are Macrophages, B Cells, T Cells.
  • MHC (1) are receptors on the surface of all neckeated cells.
  • MHC receptors provide a presentation of material within the cell to the outside of the cell -a flag or a passport ID
  • MHC = Major Histocompatibilty Complex
  • MHC 1 is critical, as it is the mechanism that identifies the foreign invader within the cell (like a virus), it converts a sample of this virus material to be displayed / flagged on the cells surface to alert T Cells to destroy it.
  • CD8+ T Cells once interaction occurs with the infected cell, the Cell goes through a confirmation process. It the releases perferins that punch holes into the cell surface and then release granzymes to enter via the holes and downgrade  the cells dna/destroy the cells nucleus.
  • MHC 1 only interests with CD8+ Cyctotoxic Killer T Cells
  • MHC 2 only interacts with CD4+ T Helper Cells

MHC 1 attracts immediate Killer T Celll response
MHC 2 recuits the immune system to amplify ie more macrophages, and B Cells to producing plasma  that create antibodies that locate the foreign antigens, and also produce memory B cells for use at a later date. ie remember this threat.
MHC2 – When a APC cell and a Helper T Cell bind correctly via its ligands and receptors, this then activates the Helper T Cell to release cytokines (Chemical messengers) such as interleukind and interferon gamma to recruit and amplify the immune response.

Note: APC cells have CD = Cluster Differenttions on their surface. In this example  – CD 80 & 86  =CD 40.
Note: Also refers to CD4+ Helper T Cells having CD 28 receptors and CD 40 ligands on its surface to corresponspd /communicate with the APC cell.
Note All these CD’s need to match and bind to create activation.
Note Interleukins, interferons are part of the cytokine family.

Also view 

Antigens – Antibodies

This video is part of the Cancer Research Institute’s series “Immunotherapy: 5 Ways to Stop Cancer.” For more information on treating cancer with immunotherapy, visit http://www.cancerresearch.org.
Monoclonal antibodies, like the drugs Avastin (bevacizumab), Herceptin (trastuzumab), and Rituxin (rituximab), are effective in treating a wide range of cancer types such as lung cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma, and others. By binding to cancer antigens, monoclonal antibodies mark the cells for destruction by the immune system. Clinical trials of more monoclonal antibodies for additional cancer types are ongoing.

Monoclonal antibodies mimic natural proteins found in the body to specifically and effectively target abnormal cells. Dr Martin Kaiser explains how these are being developed to treat myeloma.

FuseSchool – Global Education
302K subscribers

If this is the first time you have heard about antibodies, you may not know how important they are. Antibodies are one of the warriors inside our body, helping us to fight off nasty, invading particles.

They are a type of protein, and are a key component of our immune system. If a person doesn’t produce, or over-produces, antibodies in their body, the person will become very ill.

So where do antibodies come from?
Antibodies circulate in the bloodstream and can appear anywhere throughout the body. Their function is to recognize bad agents, called antigens, and then trigger further chemical reactions in the body to remove the antigens.

Antigens are foreign substances that are capable of triggering an immune response. They can be viruses, fungi, bacteria, and some non-living substances such as toxins, chemicals, and foreign particles. They can even be allergens like dust, pollen or certain foods, that cause allergic reactions. Antibodies are produced by the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen.

So what do antibodies look like?
Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulin. They are generally a Y-shaped protein consisting of four polypeptides: 2 identical light chains, and 2 identical heavy chains. the terms light and heavy simply mean larger and smaller. The 4 polypeptide chains are connected by disulphide bridges.

Here, at the tip of each arm are the antigen binding sites. These are the really important parts for attacking invading antigens.

Similar to the lock and key mechanism in enzymes, the shape of the antigen binding site is specific to the antigen it is targeting. If part of the antigen fits into the antigen binding site, the antibody “recognizes” the foreign antigen and binds it in. This stops the antigen from causing more damage elsewhere.

Two identical binding sites means any given antibody can bind simultaneously to two identical antigens.

Millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures exist, with each variant binding to a different antigen. This enormous diversity of antibodies allows the immune system to recognize an equally diverse range of antigens.

By binding in an antigen, an antibody can stop the antigen from entering or damaging cells. This is known as neutralizing. The antibody can also tag the antigen for attack by other parts of the immune system.

In mammals there are five immunoglobulin isotypes.

They perform different roles, and help direct the appropriate immune response for each different type of foreign invader.

Antibodies are cloned in laboratories.

So there we have the ninja Y-shaped antibodies – protecting us from foreign invading antigens. Antibodies are nearly identical, except for slightly different shaped antigen binding sites.

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Death + Survival Stats

Immunohistochemical – IHC

Vector Laboratories Inc
01:21 Methods of antigen detection – IHC, IF, ISH 01:53 Defining your imaging method- Brightfield, Fluorescence 02:52 Choosing fluorescent detection reagents 04:24 Establishing your detection priorities 05:18 Selecting your reagents Watch the other parts of the video series: Part 1/5: Essential choices for IHC http://bit.ly/2DuFylG Part 2/5: Selecting your reagents http://bit.ly/2sFcRwl Part 3/5: Selecting ancillary reagents http://bit.ly/2Uadrhm Part 4/5: Optimizing your protocol http://bit.ly/2U9EwkH Part 5/5: Advanced detection protocols http://bit.ly/2R7f4KM

Immunotherapy Treatment Types

Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer
4.44K subscribers
Created by Dr. Samir N. Khleif (Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center), in partnership with the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) and Cancer Support Community, IMMUNOTHERAPY: The Path to a Cancer Cure explains the interplay between the immune system and cancer; mechanisms underlying immune-based agents; and different approaches to cancer immunotherapeutics.

Patients: Watch the Patient version of this video here: 

Various

Immunotherapy CAR T-Cell

CAR T-Cell Therapy: How Does It Work?

CAR T-cell therapy, like all forms of cancer immunotherapy, seeks to sharpen and strengthen the immune system’s inherent cancer-fighting powers. It involves treating patients with modified versions of their own immune system T cells ­– white blood cells that help protect the body from disease …

CAR T-cell therapy is a kind of cellular therapy, which uses a patient’s own immune system cells to rally an attack on cancer. They’re made by removing a specific set of cells from the blood, modifying them in a lab to intensify the immune system’s natural response to cancer, and re-injecting them into the patient. CAR T cells are a form of cellular therapy that has produced exceptional results in some patients and is being tested against a variety of different cancer types.

Both CAR T-cell therapies and therapeutic cancer vaccines are considered immunotherapies because they work with the immune system to fight cancer. However, they differ from other immunotherapy agents known as immune checkpoint inhibitors, which aim to lower the barriers that can keep the anti-cancer immune response in check. . . Learn more

Immunotherapy Tuts

Science ABC
80K subscribers
The immune system (or immunity) can be divided into two types – innate and adaptive immunity. This video has an immune system animation. The innate immune system consists of defenses against infection that are activated instantly as a pathogen attacks. Adaptive immunity (or acquired immunity) is a subsystem of the immune system that contains highly specialised systemic cells and processes that kill pathogens and prevent their growth in the body. Innate vs adaptive immunity: it’s important to realize that innate and adaptive immunity are different. Their differences are explained in the video in layman terms.

Our immune system is a fascinating entity, that functions in quite a unique and efficient manner. Comprising of various types of cells, it is prepared for any kind of breach in the fortress of our body, and is equipped to fight off a staggering number of intruders.
In this video, we give you a brief overview of the immune system, and the basic types of cells involved, along with the function they carry out.

Each cell if the immune system carries out various roles, depending on the kind of threat the body is facing. However, they have certain basic roles which have been explained here.

References

https://ciiid.washington.edu/content/…
http://www.biology.arizona.edu/immuno…
http://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/MPH-Mo…
https://med.uth.edu/pathology/files/2…

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Immunotherapy Trial Results

Long-Term Outcomes With PD-1 Inhibitor Treatment and Response to Retreatment in Advanced Melanoma

The estimated 3-year overall survival from time of complete response was 82.7%. Among patients who achieved and remained in complete response for 1 year after it was identified, the conditional probability of remaining in complete response for 2 more years was 83.3%. No significant association was observed between treatment duration and relapse risk.

The investigators concluded, “In our cohort, most patients discontinued treatment at the time of complete response. Most complete responses were durable, but the probability of treatment failure was 27% at 3 years. Responses to retreatment were infrequent. The optimal duration of treatment after complete response is not yet established.” …Red Complete findings

Mutations: Type

A Study of Erdafitinib in Participants With Advanced Solid Tumors and Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) Gene Alterations

ClinicalTrials.gov: Brief Summary: Drug: Erdafitinib:
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of erdafitinib in terms of overall response rate (ORR) in participants with advanced solid tumors with fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) mutations and gene fusions. read trial study

Balversa (Erdafitinib), First-in-Class FGFR Kinase Inhibitor,

Approved for Patients with Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma and FGFR Mutations
2019 Payers’ Guide Mid-Year Addendum – Select Drug Profiles read article 

Sugar

Virus

BASIC INFORMATION ON THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND REPLICATION OF A VIRUS

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